PoS and DPoS are algorithms that drive blockchains lớn reach consensus efficiently và democratically.

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SummaryProof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus algorithms make blockchain networks more efficient by eliminating the energy-intensive computational mining process inherent in Proof-of-Work protocols. PoS algorithms incentivize users khổng lồ confirm network data and ensure security through a process of collateral staking. An iteration of the concept known as Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) works similarly, but features a voting & delegation mechanism that makes the process more democratic. PoS algorithms power some of the most innovative and popular blockchains today, và may become the dominant consensus mechanism in blockchain moving forward.


A central facet of any blockchain is its consensus mechanism, which refers to how all the stakeholders in a decentralized network agree on the validity of shared data (typically some kind of transaction, but not always) & secure that data on the blockchain. Consensus must be achieved before a blockchain network can move on & process new transactions. Proof of Stake (PoS) is an algorithm employed by cryptocurrency protocols lớn reach consensus. In PoS blockchains, an individual or group is algorithmically chosen khổng lồ verify transactions with computer hardware based on the tokens they have sầu staked, or locked up, in the network as a form of collateral.

To understvà the increased efficiency that is achieved from PoS algorithms, you must first understvà Proof of Work (PoW), the original blockchain consensus algorithm.

PoW algorithms dem& work from the computers around the world that comprise decentralized networks. In the case of Bitcoin, this work is the computer processing power that solves a computational puzzle & the computers that carry out this process are called miners. When miners solve sầu the computational puzzle, their bloông xã of data is deemed valid and added lớn all copies of the blockchain, thus achieving consensus. As a reward for their efforts, miners are granted a blochồng reward in the size of bitcoin and then turn their attention to lớn the next bloông xã of data. While this method is energy intensive, it has proven very successful at ensuring the security and stability of various blockchain networks.

History of PoS

The concept of PoS was first theorized on the Bitcointalk forums in July 2011 as a way lớn make the process of verifying blocks more efficient than employing PoW consensus algorithms. Instead of thousands of computers competing & expending energy khổng lồ confirm network data, as is the case with PoW, data verification is assigned lớn network nodes that have staked, or locked, their tokens as collateral in PoS. The concept has been iterated upon by the global blockchain developer community & is widely considered to lớn be the successor khổng lồ PoW as decentralized technology grows.

The Ethereum network is working toward replacing its PoW mechanisms with PoS in its Ethereum 2.0 update, which is expected lớn launch in 2021. Tezos, Cosmos, Cardano, EOS, Algorvà, và Synthetix Network are just a few of the blockchains that currently utilize versions of PoS.

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The kích thước of the stake: the more tokens staked, the higher the chance of being chosen to validate 

The age of the tokens staked: the longer the tokens have sầu been unspent, the higher the chance of being chosen lớn validate (once that stake is used lớn verify a bloông chồng, its age is rephối khổng lồ zero)

Random selection: the lowest hash value (the string of numbers created by a hashing algorithm to represent data) combined with the largest stake is chosen to validate the next block

Incentives và Disincentives

As a way khổng lồ keep validators from acting maliciously or adding fraudulent transactions inlớn the block, the total value of tokens staked needs to lớn exceed the transaction fees earned. If fraudulent activity is detected, the validator loses their stake & will not be allowed to lớn participate in the validation process in the future. This is why larger stakes are favored, since the validator stands khổng lồ thảm bại more from acting maliciously. This system helps create trust between the respective sầu parties.

PoS is particularly notable because it doesn’t require the hardware energy consumption required by PoW networks. On PoS networks, there is significantly less computation required. Further, PoS eliminates the barrier to entry of expensive sầu computer hardware, instead placing priority on tokens locked up in the network. Theoretically, PoS also allows more users lớn participate in the creation of new blocks.

One criticism of the PoS methodology is that its thiết kế favors the wealthy — those who hold the most cryptocurrency — since it chooses validators with the most tokens staked. To combat this discrepancy, other methods for validator selection and iterations on the concept of staking have been developed: the most notable is delegated PoS.

Delegated Proof of Stake

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) is a popular evolution of the PoS concept, whereby users of the network vote and elect delegates to validate the next bloông xã. Delegates are also called witnesses or blochồng producers. Using DPoS, you can vote on delegates by pooling your tokens inlớn a staking pool and linking those lớn a particular delegate. You vì chưng not physically transfer your tokens khổng lồ another wallet, but instead utilize a staking service provider to lớn stake your tokens in a staking pool.

A limited number of delegates (most protocols choose between trăng tròn & 100) are chosen for each new block, so the delegates of one bloông xã might not be the delegates of the next. Elected delegates receive the transaction fees from the validated block, & that reward is then shared with users who pooled their tokens in the successful delegate’s pool. The more you stake, the higher a nói qua of the blochồng reward you recieve. The rewards are shared based on each user’s stake; so if your stake represents 5% of the total staking balance, you would receive 5% of the bloông chồng reward.

The first iteration of DPoS was developed in 2014 by former EOS Chief Technology Officer (CTO) Dan Larimer. Larimer first implemented the consensus algorithm on decentralized crypto exchange platkhung BitShares in 2015. Today, a number of blockchains, including Cardano, EOS, & TRON, use DPoS.

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Testing & experimentation continue on PoS algorithms, including delegated PoS. This concept has shown immense promise for increasing the efficiency, transaction speed, và throughput of blockchain protocols, which is necessary for more enterprise uses as the industry grows và looks to lớn disrupt more complex & larger markets. The switch from PoW to PoS-based consensus mechanisms is a watershed development for blockchain giải pháp công nghệ, and an iteration of PoS will likely become the dominant form of consensus in the future.