Peer-to-peer (P2P) is a decentralized communications mã sản phẩm in which each party has the same capabilities & either party can initiate a communicationsession. Unlượt thích theclient/servermodel, in which the client makes a service request và the server fulfills the request, the P2P. network Mã Sản Phẩm allows eachnodeto function as both aclientandhệ thống.

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Typically, peer-to-peer applications allow users lớn control many parameters of operation: how many thành viên connections to lớn seek or allow at one time; whose systems to connect to or avoid; what services to offer; và how many system resources lớn devote to the network.Some simply connect khổng lồ some submix of active nodes in the network with little user control, however.

Although uses for the P2Phường networking topologies have sầu been explored since the days ofARPANET, the advantages of the P2P communications model didn"t become obvious to the general public until the late 1990s, when music-sharing P2P.. applications likeNapsterappeared. Napster and its successors, includingGnutella và BitTorrent, cut inlớn music & movie industry profits & changed how people thought about acquiring và consuming truyền thông media.

system administratorstover to discourage the use of P2P. applications. In addition to tying upbandwidthvà possibly exposing the administrator"s organization legally, P2Phường applications can be used khổng lồ bypassfirewallsand distributemalware. Networks are often phối up lớn prevent peer-to-peer “side talk” by PCs.

How peer-to-peer networks work

Typically, when a user downloads a file, the user opens a web browser, visits the appropriate trang web & downloads the tệp tin. In this case, the trang web acts as a VPS & the user’s computer acts as a client that receives the data. This can be compared khổng lồ a one-way street where the downloaded file is transferred from point A, the website, lớn point B, the user’s computer.

However, if the user downloads the same tệp tin through a peer-to-peer network, the tải về is handled differently. In this case, the user has to lớn install peer-to-peer software on his computer, which creates a virtual network of peer-to-peer application users. Then when the user downloads a tệp tin, it is received in bits that come from various computers in the network that already have sầu that tệp tin.

Simultaneously, the data is also sent from the user’s computer to lớn the computers that ask for it. This situation is similar to lớn a two-way street – the file is like numerous small bits of data that come lớn the user’s computer but also leave when requested. In fact, the file transfer load is distributed between the peer computers.

Architecture of P2P

In a peer-to-peer network architecture, each computer has the same responsibilities và capabilities. Since there is no hệ thống, the computers connect with each other in a workgroup to share files, printers and access to lớn the Internet. This architecture is practical for workgroups of 12 or fewer computers. As such, it is common in small home or office environments where each PC acts as an independent workstation, storing data on its own hard drive but with the ability to cốt truyện the data with all the other PCs on the network.

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Advantages and disadvantages of P2P

There are a number of advantages as well as disadvantages khổng lồ peer-to-peer networks.

Advantages include:

No need to lớn buy an expensive server. Each user manages his or her own computer, which means there is no need for a network manager. A P2P. network can be can be mix up in homes & small businesses. However, each computer has lớn be maintained individually. Less network traffic than a client/VPS network.

Disadvantages include:

Users cannot centrally baông xã up the files and folders. Each computer can be accessed by the other computers, which slows down the performance for the user. The files are not centrally organized into a specific shared area. Rather, they’re stored on individual computers. Consequently, it might be hard to locate the files, if whoever owns the computer doesn"t have a logical filing system. There is little to lớn no security other than the permissions.

Peer khổng lồ peer vs. client/server

A peer-to-peer network involves two or more computers that cốt truyện individual resources, including DVD players, printers & disk drives. Each computer in the network acts as the client as well as the VPS, communicating with the other computers directly. On a peer-to-peer network, a printer on one computer can be used by any of the other computers on the network. All that’s necessary is a way to connect them, such as a Wi-Fi router.

A client/VPS network involves numerous clients that connect lớn at least one central server where most applications and data are installed. Clients access these resources from the VPS. Client/server networks typically have faster access speeds because of the large number of clients they’re designed to tư vấn.

The clients can function as workstations without sharing resources. Upgrading applications và files is easier because they are only installed on a single computer. In a client/server network, security is handled by the server, not by each individual user.

History of P2P

The very first use of P2Phường networks occurred shortly after personal computers were introduced in the 1980s. The mạng internet relay chat, developed in August 1988, was one of the first peer-to-peer networks built for sharing text & chatting.

On June 1, 1999, Napster enabled music sharing on its own centralized P2Phường. network. Napster – & other first-generation P2P networks – allowed an individual lớn connect directly across the network to lớn another person who was using a copy of the same program.

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Established in 2000, Gnutella was first decentralized P2P file sharing network. It allowed users to access files on other users’ computers via a designated folder. Over the next few years, additional P2Phường truyền thông file sharing services were developed. This set the stage for other P2Phường networks, including the Bitcoin network, which was released on January 3, 2009.